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The B-26 Marauder in US Navy & Marine Corps Service
Paul Clouting 2014

The B-26 Marauder in US Navy & Marine Corps service

Deliveries to the US Navy
From September to December 1943, a total of 225 x B-26 Marauders were scheduled for delivery to the US Navy for use as high speed target towing and utility aircraft. These consisted of 200 x AT-23B-MO models, and an additional 25 x converted from the B-26C-45-MO production run from the line at the Glenn L Martin Omaha plant. In essence these aircraft were stock trainer versions of the B-26, similar to those delivered to the USAAF, and lacking any combat equipment or armored plating. In Navy use these aircraft were designated JM-1s. One of the B-26C-45-MO aircraft (42-107636) allocated for the Navy was diverted to fulfill an order for the Free French, and one of the AT-23B-MO aircraft (41-35622) crashed before delivery.

The first JM-1, Navy Bu No 66595 (ex AT-23B, 41-35373) was delivered to NAS Patuxent River, Maryland on 16th September 1943, where it was retained for flight testing and radio trials. This aircraft was sold off post war and was purchased by White Air Services of Charlotte, North Carolina, where it remained on the civil aircraft register as NL1500M until 1949 when the registration was cancelled.

Early deliveries of JM-1 aircraft went to NAS Alemeda, California. Subsequent deliveries went to NAS San Diego, California, NAS Quonset Point, Rhode Island, MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina, and NAS Norfolk, Virginia. The final deliveries going to NAS Litchfield Park, Arizona.


Chromate yellow painted JM-1, Bu No 66713 serving with VJ-4 at NAS Norfolk, Virginia

From the middle of November 1944, and additional 47 aircraft were delivered to the US Navy. These consisted of 15 x TB-26G-20-MA, and 32 x TB-26G-25-MA models from the line at the Glenn L Martin Baltimore plant. In US Navy service these aircraft were designated as JM-2s. One aircraft, Navy Bu No 91979 crashed whilst on a flight test before delivery.

JM-2s were delivered to NAS San Diego, California, NAS Norfolk, Virginia, and NAS Jacksonville, Florida.

The Units
JM-1 aircraft started equipping Navy utility squadrons from September 1943, and by June 1944, a total of thirteen squadrons were equipped with the type. The utility squadrons used a mixed compliment of aircraft, including PVs, TBMs, PBYs, TBFs, SNJs, J2Fs, SBDs, and JM-1/2s to name but a few types.

VJ-1
The unit was commissioned at NAS San Diego, California on 5th October 1925. During 1938, the unit moved to NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. In 1943, VJ-1 was split to form a new unit VJ-9. The commanding officer of VJ-1 during this period was Lt. R L Eldridge. On 15th June 1940, the unit moved to NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour, Hawaii. On 11th November 1943 orders were received to send ten crews to the USA to ferry JM-1 aircraft to Pearl Harbour. The crews went to NAAS Vernalis, California in early January 1944 where they received and trained alongside VJ-10 in ten donor JM-1 aircraft. The navigators attended a brief navigation course at NAS Alemeda, California. On 14th January 1944, five of the crews and aircraft returned to their units, and on 20th January the remaining five aircraft were flown to Suisun Field, Fairfield, California ready for ferrying to Pearl Harbour. The aircraft departed Fairfield on 23rd January and made the 12 hour and 15 minutes flight to Pearl Harbour. Two aircraft were dispatched to Johnson Island on 20th February to provide anti-aircraft towing services for the island, returning to Pearl Harbour on 26th February. Detachment A (VJ-1A) was set up at Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 31st March 1944 with four chrome yellow painted JM-1 aircraft (coded J2, J4, J5, and J7), plus a couple of TBFs, to provide target towing services for the whole Marshall Island chain and for the fleet preparing for the invasion of Guam. The unit departed Honolulu on the USS Prince George on 29th March, for Majuro, via Apanama, Tarawa, and Makin. VJ-1A was relieved from duty at Majuro Atoll by VJ-17 on 13th July and returned to rejoin the parent squadron VJ-1 at NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour. One JM-1 aircraft was sent to Kwajalein Atoll on 6th April to provide towing services for the USS Curtiss and shore installations on the Atoll. During April 1944, ASD radar was installed in the first of JM-1s, with the remaining 8 aircraft modified during May. Also in May, two of the units JM-1s were fitted with special equipment for radar countermeasures work. On 30th June, Lt. Commander L H Miller took charge of VJ-1. On 30th July 1944, VJ-1 is relieved of its duties at NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour by utility squadron VJ-7, and all JM-1 aircraft are transferred over to this squadron. During August 1944, VJ-1 started the move to NAS Moffett Field, California, relieving Utility Squadron VJ-18 of its duties at this field on 1st October 1944, and took charge of all of VJ-18s aircraft, including 9 x JM-1 aircraft. VJ-1A was then established at MCAS Santa Barbara (Goleta), California, relieving VJ18A of its duties at this field from the same date. On 22nd January 1945, Lt. Commander Joseph Garrett transferred from VJ-10, became the new commanding officer of VJ-1. In January 1945 two of VJ-1s JM-1 aircraft were equipped with droppable bomb bay fuel tanks for extended towing missions. In February 1945, AN/APS-3 radar equipment was started to be fitted to the units JM-1s, with five aircraft converted by May 1945. Also during February 1945, the units JM-1 aircraft were equipped for use in vertical photography. During May 1945, AN/APX-2 IFF gear and AN/APR-2 homing receivers were installed in five of the units JM-1 aircraft, and AN/ARN-8 marker beacons were received for installation in the units JM-1s. During June 1945, AN/APN-4 Loran equipment was installed in three of the units JM-1s, and AN/APN-1 altimeters were received ready for installation. During August 1945, 2 x JM-1 aircraft were equipped with Radio Countermeasures equipment. Also during August 1945, one of the units JM-1 aircraft was sent to VJ-2 at Shelton, Washington for wave depth determination photography tests. Detachment A (VJ-1A) at MCAS Santa Barbara (Goleta), California was officially disbanded on 20th September 1945. By October 1945 the squadron is now operating JM-2 aircraft. On 1st April 1946, the units JM-2 aircraft flew a search mission for people washed out to sea off Big Island in Hawaii, helping the coast guard to pick up numerous people from the water. In November 1946 the unit was Re-designated VU-1. During April 1947 the last of the JM-2 aircraft are phased out and replaced by Douglas JD-1 Invaders.

VJ-2
VJ-2 was one of the oldest fleet utility squadrons. During September 1943, the unit moved from its base at Efate Island, British New Hebrides back to North Island, San Diego California on mainland USA to rest and reform. On 1st November 1943, VJ-2 was officially reformed at NAAS Vernalis, San Joaquin County, California, a sub-base of NAS Alemeda, California. During this period, Lt. Commander William R Lipscomb was appointed as the new commanding officer. Crews began training in JM-1 aircraft at NAS Alemeda, California, and the unit received 6 x JM-1 tow target aircraft. During November 1943, VJ-2 moved to NAAS Arcata, Humboldt County, California, a sub-base of NAS Alemeda for continued training. On 6th February 1944, the squadron moved to NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour, Oahu, Hawaii. The aircraft were preserved for shipment and loaded aboard the USS Nehenta Bay and sailed for Pearl Harbour. Upon arrival the aircraft were transferred by barge to Ford Island where they were de-preserved and prepared for flight. A further 3 x JM-1 aircraft were assigned to VJ-2 on arrival at Pearl Harbour as non-operational spares. Seven days after arriving at Pearl Harbour, VJ-2 relieved VJ-10 of its duties at this location, allowing VJ-10 to move south to its new base at Guadalcanal. During the period of operations at Pearl Harbour, the unit worked alongside VJ-1, which was also based at Pearl Harbour. These units provided AA towing for incoming and outgoing ships of the fleet and their auxiliaries, radar calibration and tracking for ships in the area, torpedo recovery and submarine coverage, plus towing and fighter direction services for the numerous land based training units, both day and night. During this period the SQN was equipped with 9 x JM-1 aircraft. From 22nd March to 30th April 1944, 2 x JM-1s were sent on temporary duty to Midway Island to provide towing services for the Marine Corps AA batteries on the island. Utility squadron VJ-12 arrived from the USA and relieved VJ-2 of its duties at Pearl Harbour, allowing VJ-2 to move to Espiritu Santo Island. During April 1944, VJ-2 moved to Pallikulo Airfield, Espiritu Santos Island, British New Hebrides, where it relieved utility squadron VJ-9 of its duties on 24th April 1944, and allowing that unit to return to the USA. The units 9 x JM-1 aircraft were flown to Espiritu Santo, but the units other aircraft types were left behind at Pearl. The JM-1s were flown in groups of four and five on 18th April to Hickam Field, Hawaii, then Palmyra, Canton, Wallis (flight 1 only), then Nandi, Fiji, and on to Espiritu, arriving on 22nd April (flight 2), and 23rd April (flight 1). Flight 1 encountered a storm front during the flight from Canton to Nandi, were forced to change course, and land at Wallis. On arrival at Espiritu, VJ-2 acquired VJ-9s aircraft to replace those left behind at Pearl Harbour. During May 1944, 6 x JM-1s from the squadron were sent for temporary service with VJ-10 (2 at Guadalcanal on 8th May returning on 16th May, and 4 at Henderson Field, (2 sent on 17th May returning on 26th May, and another 2 sent on 28th May), with aircraft rotated on a weekly basis. One JM-1 aircraft was dispatched on temporary duty to Manus during June. During July 1944, 2-3 JM-1s were sent on detached duty to Pityilu Island, in the Admiralty Island Chain to provide AA towing services for the task forces and shore installations, plus some photographic flights, pending the main body of VJ-2 moving to that location during early August 1944. Before the rest of the squadron arrived at Pityilu, 1 x JM-1 from the detachment was sent to Humboldt Bay, Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea for 8-10 days before returning to Pityilu. By August 1944, all 9 of the squadrons aircraft were assembled at Pityilu. In September 1944, three detachments were established, VJ-2 detachment A (VJ-2A) at Archer Field, Brisbane, Australia, VJ-2 detachment B (VJ-2B) at Pallikulo Airfield, Espiritu Santo, and VJ-2 detachment C (VJ-2C) at Turnbull Field, Milne Bay, New Guinea. Detachment VJ-2C returned to Pityilu in October, pending its move to Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea on 16th November 1944. Detachment VJ-2B at Espiritu Santo closed in October 1944.
VJ-2A formally at Archer Field, moved to Santani Airfield, Hollandia, New Guinea on 16th November 1944, including 1 x JM-1 aircraft. Detachment A (VJ-2A) moved back to Pityilu on 4th December 1944, but a temporary detachment was maintained at Hollandia till March 1945. On 1st March 1945, detachment VJ-2A, including 4 x JM-1 aircraft, moved to Guinan Airfield, Samur, Philippines to provide utility services for fleet units in the Philippines area. In March 1945, two of the units JM-1s + 4 x TBM-1Cs, and a PBY were flown to Samur Island, Philippines via Hollandia, Owi, and Peleliu to become detachment A1 (VJ-2-A1). The JM-1s remained there for a while to provide towing services for any ships in the area before returning to rejoin the parent unit. This detachment was relieved by VJ-9 in May 1945. In May 1945, three new JM-2 aircraft were added to the squadron, flown in by ferry pilots from VJ-9. On 1st June 1945, VJ-2 was relieved of its duties by incoming utility squadron VJ-9, and VJ-2 prepared to return to the USA. VJ-2 relinquished all its aircraft and equipment to VJ-9, and VJ-2 started the move back to the USA. The personnel arrived at San Diego and San Francisco, California. After a brief period of R&R the unit reported to NAS Shelton, Washington in July 1945. On 29th June 1945, a new commanding officer took charge of VJ-2, Lt. Commander James T Morris. During the middle of June 1945, the flight crews made familiarisation flights with VJ-10 crews. During July 1945, detachment A (VJ-2A) was established at NAS Whidbey Island, Washington, with 2 x JM-1 aircraft transferred to that location. On 20th July, VJ-2 relieved outgoing unit VJ-10 of all its duties at NAS Shelton and NAS Whidbey Island, and took charge of all VJ-10s aircraft, including 8 x JM-1 aircraft. On 12th September 1945, VJ-2 moved to NAS Seattle, Washington.

VJ-4
The unit was commissioned at NAS Norfolk, Virginia on 15th November 1940. The commanding officer was Commander Henry Titus Hodgskin, Jnr. From its commissioning through to the first half of 1943, VJ-4 and its numerous detachments were scattered up and down the shoreline from Newfoundland to Brazil. On 11th November 1942, Commander Lloyd Withers Parish took charge of VJ-4, replaced by Lt. Commander. Frank Kidder Upham on 24th September 1943. Once utility squadrons VJ-14 and VJ-15 were commissioned, the detachments of VJ-4 were reduced, allowing VJ-4 to concentrate on a smaller area of operations. The first JM-1 aircraft was delivered to VJ-4 at NAS Norfolk, Virginia on 19th October 1943. The unit received 9 more JM-1 aircraft on 23rd October, and another 14 x JM-1s on 3rd November 1943. During December 1943, VJ-4 established a detachment at NAS Atlantic City, New Jersey, and during the same month the units JM-1 aircraft experimented with oxygen equipment and high altitude towing operations. On 15th December 1943, another two JM-1 aircraft were received. In late 1943, detachments were established at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Another detachment was established at Trinidad, British West Indies in early 1944. By the start of January 1944 the unit had 16 x JM-1 aircraft on strength, 13 of these were at NAS Norfolk, and 3 aircraft at NAS Atlantic City. Another four JM-1 aircraft arrived on 18th January 1944. On 24th February 1944, Lt. Commander Edwin Totman Hughes assumed command of VJ-4, replaced by Lt. Commander. Erwin George Schwab on 10th March 1944. On 17th March 1944, another 3 x JM-1 aircraft were received. During 1944, 2 x JM-1 aircraft operated with utility squadron VJ-16. Also during 1944, test units were stationed temporarily at Camp Davis, North Carolina, and Edgewood, Maryland, and 1 x JM-1 aircraft was allocated for a secret project for several months during the year. In March 1944, 2 x JM-1 aircraft were dispatched to Port Lyautey, Morocco. One of the aircraft remained there, providing towing services for one PV squadron and three PBY squadrons. The other aircraft moved to Agadir, Morocco, providing towing services for a Ventura squadron and Free French units in the area. These two aircraft returned to NAS Norfolk, Virginia on 10th October 1944.

VJ-7
The unit was commissioned at NAS Alameda, California on 4th December 1942. The first commanding officer was Lt. W R Lipscomb. The unit was formed to provide fleet combat units on the US West coast with target towing for aircraft and ships, make tracking and radar calibration flights, simulated attacks on submarines & destroyers, provide photographic and mapping services for the fleet, and provide AA gun crew training missions. The squadron moved to NAS San Diego, California. In October 1943 a new commanding officer took charge, Commander P K Will. The unit had 6 x JM-1s assigned to it in November 1943, reaching its full compliment of 9 x JM-1 aircraft by January 1944. During June 1944, pilots from VJ-9 were trained and checked out in VJ-7 aircraft. In July 1944, the squadron moved to NAS Pearl Harbour, Oahu, Hawaii, relieving resident unit VJ-1 of its duties on 29th July, and taking over all of VJ-1s aircraft and equipment. Also in July, there was another change of command when Lt. Commander Henry B Somerville took charge of VJ-7. From 11th to 18th August 44, two of the units JM-1 aircraft were sent on temporary detachment to Johnston Island. During October 1944 tests were conducted on an impeller driven dual pump hydraulic tow reel system for JM-1 aircraft, cutting the time taken to reel in 7,000 feet of tow cable from 15-20 minutes down to 4 minutes and 45 seconds. The test proved successful and all of VJ-7s JM-1 aircraft are due to be converted. During January 1945 the first LORAN navigation equipment was installed in one of VJ-7s JM-1 aircraft. During 1945, search radar, LORAN equipment, VHF radios, radio altimeters, and IFF equipment was installed in the units JM-1 aircraft. On 29th January 1945, one JM-1 aircraft was loaned to VJ-14 for 10 days. Another JM-1 aircraft (aircraft code J-2) was transferred on temporary duty to VJ-14 from 1st to 28th February 1945. During February, Lt. Commander Luke H Miller took charge of VJ-7. In May 1945, VJ-7 received two new JM-2 aircraft replacing two older JM-1s that were put out of commission. The unit now had 8 x JM-1s and 2 x JM-2 aircraft on strength. An EE800 electric tow cable rewind system was installed in one of the units JM-1 aircraft during June 1945, replacing the locally manufactured impeller driven system previously fitted. From 1st July 1945, Marine utility squadron VMJ-3 and their JM-1 aircraft were attached to this unit for training in towing and other utility missions.

VJ-9
The unit was commissioned on 16th April 1943. The commanding officer was Commander Hal K Edwards. VJ-9 was based at Espiritu Santo Island, British New Hebrides, with detachment at: VJ-9A at Havannah Harbour, Efate; VJ-9B at Tontouta, New Caledonia: VJ-9C at Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. During March 1944, the detachment at Guadalcanal was relieved by utility squadron VJ-10. Utility squadron VJ-2 relieved VJ-9 of its duties at Espiritu Santo and its detachments on 28th April 1944, and took over all the aircraft and equipment from VJ-9, except for the units PV-1 aircraft which were flown to NAS Pearl Harbour for major overhaul. From 9th May 1944, VJ-9 moved back to the USA to regroup and take R&R. The unit regrouped at NAS San Diego, California in June 1944 and flight crews began training on the JM-1, using resident units VJ-7s aircraft. On 1st July 1944, VJ-9 officially relieved VJ-7 of its duties at NAS San Diego, and its detachment at NAS Los Alamitos, California, and all of VJ-7s aircraft and equipment was transferred to VJ-9. By July 1944, the unit had 9 x JM-1 aircraft (inherited from VJ-7) on strength, and another 3 aircraft were added to the inventory during the month completing the full compliment of 12 aircraft. The mission of VJ-9 at San Diego was to provide AA target towing for ships operating in the San Diego area, and provide towing missions for the gunnery training school at Pacific Beach. The primary function of detachment A at Los Alamitos was to provide fighter director training for the CIC School at San Clemente Island. During August 1944, one of the units JM-1 aircraft was used to photograph the effect of wave velocity experiments conducted in Salton Sea. In October 1944, 2 x JM-1 aircraft were serving with Det.A at NAS Los Alamitos, California, rising to 3 x JM-1s from November 44. On 17th November 1944, 1 x JM-1 was sent on temporary loan to VJ-13 for training purposes, returning to VJ-9 in January 1945. Experiments were conducted towing the Mk.1 wing glider with a JM-1 aircraft during December 1944. The JM-1 was fitted with an electric booster which was incorporated with the C-5 tow reel system to provide sufficient power to reel in the glider. Test flights were made from Brown Field, San Diego, California. A number of successful operational flights were made towing for a Marine fighter squadron. Runs were also made over the firing line at Pacific Beach, but the glider did not show up clearly enough on this occasion. A new type of pilots shoulder harness was developed by VJ-9 during December, allowing the pilot greater freedom of movement. The harness was approved and will be fitted to all of VJ-9s JM-1 aircraft. During the last two weeks of December 1944, 1 x JM-1 aircraft was loaned to VJ-9 from VJ-13 to help meet the heavy towing schedule. On 9th February 1945, one of the units JM-1 aircraft was transferred over to VJ-1. On 18th February a replacement JM-1 was received from the supply officer at NAS Alemeda to replace another JM-1 which was written off and salvaged in a landing accident in January 1945. A new commanding officer took charge of VJ-9 on 26th February, Lt. Commander George N Whittler. On 13th March, another replacement JM-1 was received from the supply officer at NAS San Diego, California to replace the aircraft damaged in a landing accident in March. On 1st April, Detachment A was transferred from NAS Los Alamitos to NAS Terminal Island, San Pedro, California. VJ-9 flight crews ferried three new JM-2 aircraft to utility squadron VJ-2 at Pityilu Island, Admiralty Islands. The aircraft had been ferried to NAS Pearl Harbour, where the VJ-9 crews received the aircraft. They took off from Barbers Point Airfield, Hawaii on 28th March 1945, and made stopovers at Johnston Island, Majuro Atoll, Tarawa, Guadalcanal, and Green Island Atoll. The aircraft had not been thoroughly checked over at Ford Island, Pearl Harbour before departure, and minor hydraulic and radio problems were encountered en route. The aircraft flew over Milli Atoll in the Marshall Islands whilst American planes were carrying out a bombing attack, and also flew over or around enemy controlled territory in the North Solomons and New Ireland. The aircraft arrived at Pityilu and were handed over to VJ-2 on 1st April. Another VJ-9 flight crew left San Diego, California on 3rd April on temporary assignment to ferry another new JM-2 from Pearl Harbour to utility squadron VJ-13 at Guadalcanal. The crew departed Ford Island, Pearl Harbour on 8th May, flying via Guam, and arriving at Guadalcanal on 14th May. On 16th April 1945, VJ-12 relieved VJ-9 of all duties at NAS San Diego and its detachment at NAS Terminal Island, and all of VJ-9s aircraft and equipment were transferred over to VJ-12. Personnel that were to remain in the USA were transferred to VJ-12. During April and May 1945, VJ-9 moved overseas to Pityilu Island, Admiralty Islands to relieve resident unit VJ-2 of its duties. By the middle of May, the main body of VJ-9 had arrived at Pityilu, and by 31st May, all of VJ-2s aircraft and equipment had been transferred to VJ-9 (including 5 x JM-1s + 3 x JM-2s). On 1st June 1945, VJ-9 officially relieved VJ-2 of all its duties at Pityilu. The unit now established detachments at Guiuan Field, Eastern Samur, Philippines (VJ-9A), operational from June till 27th July 1945 when it closed. 3 x JM-2s and 1 x JM-1 were transferred from the main base at Pityilu to Det.A at Guiuan Field in June 1945. A temporary detachment was established at Clark Field, Luzon (VJ-9A-1) from June, becoming permanent detachment VJ-9A in September 1945. Another temporary detachment was established at Jinamoc Island, near Tacloban, Leyte from June, becoming permanent detachment VJ-9C in September, before closing in October 1945. A temporary detachment was established at Pitoe Field, Morotai from June till 2nd July 1945. Another temporary detachment was established at Sentani Airfield, Hollandia from early June till 11th June 1945. On 30th June 1945 a JM-2 from utility squadron VJ-13 was transferred to VJ-9 for use with detachment A at Guiuan Field, Samur to help cope with increased demands for towing services. During July 1945, the squadron strength was 4 x JM-1s and 4 x JM-2s. During July the whole of VJ-9 moved to Guiuan Field. On 2nd July 1945 a JM-1 was transferred out of the squadron. On 27th July 1945 the rest of VJ-9 moved to join detachment A at Guiuan Field, Samur, making this the new home base of VJ-9. In August 1945 the squadron strength was 5 x JM-1s and 4 x JM-2s. On 17th August 1945 another JM-1 was received by the squadron.

VJ-10
The unit was commissioned on 16th April 1943 at NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour, Hawaii, formed from a detachment of VJ-2. The commanding officer was Lt. Commander Theodore R Cooley. On 14th November 1943 a detachment of officers departed NAS Ford Island and sailed to the USA to receive training on the JM-1 aircraft. Crews trained at NAS Vernalis, California. The squadron received its compliment of 9 x JM-1 aircraft in early January 1944. Two of the aircraft were flown out from mainland USA to Hickham Field, Hawaii by air, and the other 7 aircraft were transferred by sea to Hickham Field aboard the small escort carrier CVE-69, USS Kasaan Bay, departing on 5th January 1944. These aircraft were re-assembled and test flown at Hickam Field. The aircraft had been delivered new from the factory in a stripped down condition. Bomb bay fuel tanks were fitted, target towing equipment installed, along with navigation equipment and emergency equipment. In addition, radio and radar equipment was installed. VJ-10 were notified of a move to the South Pacific. The JM-1 flight crews undertook intensive navigational training. All nine aircraft were then flown to the squadrons new base at Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, via Palmyra Island, departing in three flights of three aircraft on 3rd, 6th, and 14th March 1944, making the flight of over 3,000 miles. The first group was led by the CO, Lt. Commander Cooley. By the 14th March all nine of the aircraft had arrived at Henderson Field, and by the 20th, the entire squadron had arrived and began full scale operations. On 25th July 1944, VJ-12 arrived at Henderson Field to relieve VJ-10, allowing it to return to the USA. During early August 1944 VJ-12 and took over the operations from VJ-10, and took charge of all of VJ-10s aircraft. VJ-10 then moved back to the USA, reporting to NAS Shelton, Washington following a brief period of R&R. On arrival at NAS Shelton, VJ-10 crews carried out joint operations with the departing unit VJ-13, before taking over its duties on 1st October 1944, and taking on charge of all VJ-13s aircraft and equipment, including 9 x JM-1s. Detachment A was established at NAS Ault Field, Whidbey Island, Washington (VJ-10A). A second detachment was established at NAS Astoria, Oregon, but this detachment was disbanded during December 1944. Whilst based at NAS Shelton, VJ-10 performed towing services for the fleet gunnery school at Pacific Beach, Washington, as well as photographic flights, radar tracking flights, some ship towing exercises, and fighter director missions. On 15th January 1945, deputy CO, Lt. Commander Joseph Garret was transferred from VJ-10 to take over command of VJ-1. On 3rd April, detachment B was established at Moon Island Airport, Hoquiem, Washington, but no JM-1 aircraft were based there. During late August and early September 1945, VJ-10 began the move to its new base at Agana, Guam. The unit arrived on 4th September 1945, and on 9th September 1945 relieved outgoing unit VJ-17 of its duties at this location, taking over all of that units aircraft and equipment. On 8th October the unit received 5 x JM-1 aircraft transferred from VJ-18 to replace five battle worn aircraft. On 22nd October, the five battle worn aircraft and crews departed Guam for the flight to Pearl Harbour via Eniwetok, Wake Island, and Midway. On arrival the aircraft and crews, comprising of 15 officers and ten enlisted men were transferred to VJ-14. One of the aircraft experienced problems and was delayed whilst spare parts were flown out to Guam. During October 1945 a new commanding officer took charge of VJ-10, Lt. Commander J A Mohlman, who was transferred in from VJ-13. On 8th November 1945, VJ-10 was decommissioned, and the remaining personnel were absorbed into VJ-9 detachment A (VJ-9A).

VJ-12
The unit was commissioned on 1st November 1943 at NAS Whidbey Island, Washington. The commanding officer was Lt. Commander Alfred Kauko Aho. On forming at NAS Whidbey Island, two detachments were also formed. Detachment A (VJ-12A) was based at NAS Astoria, Oregon, providing day and night towing services for the AA training centre at Pacific Beach, Washington, and towing services for air groups forming and training in and around NAS Astoria. Detachment B (VJ-12B) was based at USCG Air Station Fort Angeles, Washington, providing towing services to ships of the fleet in and around Seattle, Washington. Also, if bad weather prevented operations at NAS Shelton, the detachment would provide services to the AA training centre at Pacific Beach. On 15th November 1943, VJ-12 transferred to NAS Shelton, Washington. Detachment A returned to the home station at Shelton, Washington on 27th November, and Detachment B returned to Shelton on 14th February 1944. VJ-13 relieved VJ-12 of its duties at NAS Shelton on 17th February, allowing VJ-12 to prepare for its overseas deployment. On 5th March 1944, the commanding officer and other pilots left for NAS Alameda, California to train and make preparations to ferry nine JM-1 aircraft to NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour, Hawaii. The training included intensive navigational training. The nine aircraft assigned to VJ-12 were fitted for trans-Pacific flight at the A&R shops at NAS Alameda, with the first aircraft completed on 17th March 1944. On completion the aircraft were then flown to NAS Vernalis, California for further training for further training, including fuel consumption tests, and night navigation flights lasting up to ten and eleven hours duration. Then on 24th March 1944 the aircraft were flown to Naval Auxiliary Air Station Crows Landing to complete the training for the overseas flight. With training completed, the aircraft and complete flight crews flew to Fairfield Army Air Field, California on 31st March in preparation for the overseas flight. On 1st April the nine aircraft departed Fairfield at 0000 hours, starting the 13 hour flight to NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour, Hawaii. Once the unit had settled in at Pearl Harbour it undertook the following missions: Photographic, radar tracking, submarine coverage, inter-island cargo and personnel flights, provided the fleet and shore stations with day and night towing services, and rescue missions. Detachment A (VJ-12A) was established at Midway Island on 24th June 1944 with 2 x JM-1 aircraft, returning to Ford Island about a week later on 8th July. Detachment A then moved to Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands on 9th July 1944, and on 24th July reported to the commanding officer of VJ-10. On 20th July, detachment B (VJ-12B) was established at Guadalcanal. On 31st July this detachment reported to the commanding officer of VJ-12 detachment A. All of VJ-12s remaining aircraft were transferred to VJ-14 on 25th July, with that unit taking over the duties at Ford Island. On 28th July, detachment C was established at Guadalcanal. On 1st August, detachment A moved to Pallikulo Airfield, Espiritu Santo Island, relieving a detachment of VJ-10 at that location. On 15th August, the main body of VJ-12 had moved to Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, and took over all operations from VJ-10. It also took charge of all of VJ-10s aircraft and equipment. Similar operations were provided to when the unit was at Pearl Harbour, apart from submarine coverage. In addition the unit was tasked with leading single engine aircraft on long over water flights from Guadalcanal to Espiritu Santo Island in the New Hebrides, and back to Guadalcanal. On 18th February 1945, VJ-13 relieved VJ-12 of all duties at Henderson Field and took charge of all of VJ-12s aircraft the same day. At the end of February VJ-12 returned to US West Coast, and after a period of R&R, reported to NAS San Diego, California. The unit officially took over the duties from VJ-9 at NAS San Diego on 17th April 1945, including the detachment at NAS Terminal Island, San Pedro, California by VJ-12 detachment A (VJ-12A). All aircraft from VJ-9 (including 11 x JM-1s) were taken over by VJ-12 at this time. The detachment at NAS Terminal Island provided aircraft services for CIC team training, and towing services for surface craft at San Clemente Island and San Pedro.


JM-1, Bu No 66759 of VJ-12

VJ-13
The unit was commissioned on 3rd January 1944 at Navy Auxiliary Air Station, Shelton, Washington. The commanding officer was Lt. Commander Carl David Simonsen. On 17th February, VJ-13 relieved VJ-12 of its duties at NAAS Shelton. Whilst based at Shelton, VJ-13 provided high and low speed target services for ships, shore batteries, and gunnery schools. In addition missions were flown for radar calibration, fighter director training, tracking for gun pointers, aero calibration tracking, search light tracking, photographic services, transportation, and rescue missions. From April to July 1944, the unit had 6 x JM-1s on strength + 3 x non-operating JM-1s. During April 1944, 1 x JM-1 aircraft was equipped for photographic mapping duties at San Diego, California, and was also fitted with a solar navigation PDI, enabling the aircraft to fly perfectly straight lines whilst on a photographic run. During the month this aircraft was flown out of Boise, Idaho, performing photo mapping duties in an area covering 3,500 square miles in Oregon and Nevada. During May 1944, one JM-1 aircraft was located with Detachment A (VJ-13A) at NAS Ault Field, Whidbey Island, Washington, increasing to two JM-1s during June 44. In May, the squadron strength was six JM-1s + three non-flying spares. The unit conducted tracking and towing missions for forces in the Puget Sound area. Also during May, 3 x JM-1 aircraft and flight crews were received temporarily by the unit for the training and partial conversion of aircraft for use with HEDRON FAW-4 in Alaska. The aircraft were modified by VJ-13 and the A&R workshops, Seattle, Washington. During June 1944, the crew and aircraft departed North for Alaska. During August, the JM-1 compliment had increased to 9 aircraft. Personnel from VJ-10 began arriving on 15th September, and by 30th September 1944, VJ-10 took over all operations at NAS Shelton from VJ-13. All of VJ-13s aircraft were handed over to VJ-10 on 1st October 1944. During October, November, and December, the unit was on a stand-by status at NAAS Shelton, with no aircraft assigned, pending reassignment. In November 1944, 3 x JM-1 aircraft were received on temporary loan (1 aircraft from VJ-1, VJ-9, and VJ-10). During early January 1945, VJ-13 was in training at NAAS Shelton ready for transportation overseas. At this time the unit had the 3 x JM-1s on temporary loan, but these returned to their units during the month. On 16th January, the squadron personnel were embarked on the USS Bottineau and departed for Treasure Island. On 19th January the ship arrived at San Francisco. Lt. Commander assumed temporary command whilst here, and the entire squadron then embarked on the USS Gosper before heading for Treasure Island. A change of orders put the ship into Pearl Harbour, Hawaii, and it arrived here on 28th January. Nine officers and six enlisted men remained at Ford Island, Pearl Harbour to ferry three JM-1 aircraft to Henderson Field. On 29th January the squadron transferred to the USS Burleigh and sailed for Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. On 14th February 1945, the squadron and its equipment were put ashore by landing craft on Guadalcanal. On arriving at Henderson Field, the unit relieved VJ-12 of its duties there on 18th February, and VJ-12 detachment A at Espiritu Santo. The last components of VJ-12 departed on 18th February. Whilst at Guadalcanal the squadron provided the following services: AA towing (for ship and shore), AA tracking (for ship and shore), night tracking and RCM practises, radar calibration, aerial mapping duties, photographing landing operations, mail runs, night flare rehearsals, transportation and ferrying duties, fighter directive practise, radar countermeasures exercises both day and night, air sea rescue, anti-submarine patrols, administration flights, and rehearsals for air support strikes by landing forces. At this time the unit had eight JM-1 aircraft on strength, three of which were to be ferried to Guadalcanal via Ford Island, Pearl Harbour, Hawaii. On 16th February, one of the three aircraft to be ferried from Ford Island to Guadalcanal crashed into the sea off Hawaii. The other two aircraft arrived at Henderson Field on 21st February 1945. At Henderson Field, the unit provided AA towing and tracking, radar calibration, and transportation services. On 18th March 1945, two JM-1 aircraft were sent to Noumea, New Caledonia for three weeks, returning to Henderson Field on 21st April 1945. During February, March, April, and May 1945 the unit had 8 x JM-1 aircraft on strength, but by June this had risen back to nine aircraft. On 18th March 1945, two of the squadrons JM-1 aircraft were sent to Noumea on detachment, to provide AA towing services. These aircraft returned to Henderson Field on 21st April. On 24th April, three JM-1s were assigned on temporary duty with VJ-17. On 1st June, VJ-13 was in the process of moving to Guiuan Field, Eastern Samur, Philippine Islands. One JM-1 aircraft was already there, and the ground echelon and the squadron equipment boarded two ships bound for Samur. The rest of the aircraft were ready to depart by 3rd July, but bad weather hampered their flights. Detachment A was at Guam working with VJ-17. By the 21st June, the squadron and all its aircraft were together at Guinan Field, Samur. Utility operations had already began on 15th June, providing AA towing services for the Pacific fleet stationed in Leyte Gulf, San Pedro Bay, and the vicinity. During the months of June thru to October 1945, the unit had nine JM-1 aircraft on strength. In October, Lt. Commander John D Goodsell became the commanding officer of VJ-13. Following VJ day at the beginning of September 1945, the demand for towing services virtually ceased, and only four towing missions were flown during the month. On 29th September, four JM-1 aircraft were detached to CNAB, Okinawa, Japan. These aircraft returned to Samur on 21st October, and the squadron began winding down ready for its return to the USA for disbandment. In early September 1945, VJ-13s aircraft compliment and equipment was handed over to VJ-9 which remained at Samur. On 6th November 1945 the squadron personnel boarded the USS Knox and headed for San Pedro, California, transiting via the Northern Pacific route via the Aleutian Island chain, arriving on 24th November. The personnel were then ferried by buses to NAS San Diego, California from where they were either discharged from service, or reassigned to other units. VJ-13 was finally decommissioned in December 1945.

VJ-14
The unit was commissioned on 1st September 1943 at USCG station Mills Field, South San Fransico, California, formed from a detachment of VJ-7. The commanding officer was Lt. Clifford N Maker. The unit received six JM-1 aircraft towards the end of September 1943, rising to a full compliment of nine JM-1 aircraft by November 1943. VJ-14 transferred to NAS Moffett Field, San Francisco, California on 18th December 1943, and set-up a Detachment (VJ-14A) at MCAS Santa Barbara, California on 1st April 1944. Newly established unit VJ-18 arrived at Moffett Field on 15th June 1944, pending a move to Pearl Harbour by VJ-14. All of VJ-14s aircraft were transferred to VJ-18 on 30th June, and on 1st July the unit was relieved of all duties at Moffett Field and Santa Barbara by VJ-18. On 21st July, VJ-14 moved to NAS Ford Island, Pearl Harbour, Hawaii, relieving the resident unit VJ-12 of its duties on 25th July. All of VJ-12s aircraft, including eight JM-1 aircraft were taken over by VJ-14 on 29th July. Two JM-1 aircraft (Bu Nos. 66778 and 66674), three crews, and equipment were sent on temporary duty to Midway Island on 17th September 1944 for one week, returning to Ford Island on 24th September. By October 1944, VJ-14 had ten JM-1 aircraft on strength. During February 1945, nine JM-1 aircraft were prepared by VJ-14 maintenance personnel for ferrying to VJ-13 and VJ-18. Eight of the aircraft were dispatched without incident, but the ninth aircraft (Bu No. 75206 for VJ-13) crashed. Up until May 1945 the unit had nine JM-1 aircraft, but in June through to September 1945, the inventory consisted of seven JM-1, and two JM-2 aircraft. In the autumn of 1945, VJ-14 removed all the JM-1 aircraft from its inventory, and these were replaced with JD-1s, a navy version of the Douglas A-26 Invader.

VJ-15
The unit was commissioned on 23rd June 1943 at NAS Brunswick, Maine, formed from a detachment of VJ-4. The unit was formed to provide additional aircraft services to the Atlantic Fleet. The commanding officer was Lt. Commander Charles William Fielder. The unit received its compliment of nine JM-1 Target Towing Marauders on 23rd September 1943 at NAS Brunswick, Maine. Another JM-1 was received on 14th January 1944. Lt. Commander Fielder was transferred on 21st February 1944, and Lt. Edward Clayton McCullen, Jnr became temporary acting CO until Lt. Commander Orville Albert Olstad took charge from 15th March 1944. On 13th June 1944, one JM-1 aircraft was transferred out of VJ-15. In January 1945 the unit had detachments at NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, with two JM-1 aircraft, and at NAS Quonset Point, Rhode Island, New York. There was also a detachment at Kindley Field, Bermuda. On 16th April 1945, VJ-14 received five JM-1 aircraft which were transferred over from VJ-4. These five aircraft were used to set up a detachment at Atlantic City.

VJ-16
The unit was commissioned on 1st December 1943 at NAS San Juan, Puerto Rico to provide tow target and utility services for the Atlantic Fleet in the Florida and Caribbean areas, previously served by VJ-4. The unit was formed from a nucleus of personnel and aircraft from VJ-4, including ten JM-1 aircraft. The training of pilots and maintenance of JM-1 aircraft took place at NAS Miami, Florida using twenty four JM-1 aircraft from NACTC. The commanding officer was Lt. Commander Vincent Courtland Wright. The unit moved to USN/AAF Roosevelt Road, Puerto Rico on 28th April 1944, then to NAS Miami, Florida on 10th May 1944. The unit moved to NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba on 1st April 1945. During April 1945, the unit received two JM-2 aircraft. On 22nd September 1945, a new commanding officer took charge, Lt. Commander William Dale Wilder.

VJ-17
The unit was commissioned on 15th March 1944 at NAS Alemeda, California by the commander of Fleet Air Wing Eight (FAW-8). The unit was established to provide services to the Central Pacific Fleet, towing sleeved targets, providing tracking exercises, and photographic missions as requested by the fleet, or other naval services in the region. The squadron moved out to NAS Moffett Field, California for fitting out and training. The acting commanding officer was Lt. Robert F Goodspeed, until Lt. Forrest A Todd was formally assigned as the commanding officer the following day (16th March 1944). Once training was completed, the unit and its compliment of nine JM-1 aircraft fitted with long range ferry tanks departed NAS Moffett Field on 1st July 1944 to a point of embarkation at Fairfield, California for final preparations for the Trans-Atlantic flight. Also on 1st July, a detachment (VJ-17 det.A) was established at Eniwetok Island, Marshall Island Chain (VJ-17A), with one JM-1 and five TBF-1 aircraft arriving later. This rose to five JM-1s in August 1944. On 5th July, the aircraft departed Fairfield, and made the 10.5 hour flight to NAS Ford Island, Hawaii, the first leg of the flight. Here the aircraft were checked over, the long range fuel tanks removed from the bomb bays, and certain towing equipment installed by maintenance personnel from the resident unit, VJ-12. Departing Ford Island on 8th July, the aircraft stopped off at NAS Barbers Point to refuel before heading for Majuro Atoll via Johnston Island. On arrival at Johnston Island the aircraft were delayed due to unfavourable weather conditions, but departed on 10th July, arriving at the units new home base, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands on 11th July. On arrival VJ-17 relieved the departing unit VJ-1 detachment A (VJ-1A) of its duties at this station. On 12th July, Lt. Todd was transferred out, and Lt. Harrison J Johnson assumed temporary command. Two JM-1 aircraft were dispatched to Kwajalein Island on 19th July, returning to Majuro Atoll three days later on 22nd July. Further pairs of JM-1s were dispatched to Kwajalein Island during July through to November 1944 when services were required. On 28th September, a second detachment (VJ-17B) was established at NAB Agana, Guam (det.B), with two JM-1 aircraft. From 16th October 1944, Lt. Commander John George Turk became the new commanding officer of VJ-17. The squadron moved to NAB Agana Field, Guam on 27th December 1944, from where it could provide services to Peleliu and Saipan, in addition to fleet activities in this area. A third detachment was set up at Ulithi Atoll, Western Carolines during December 1944 (VJ-17C). On 5th February 1945, five JM-1 aircraft were dispatched to Faslop, Ulithi Atoll to assist the resident detachment of VJ-18B. On 25th April 1945, five JM-1 aircraft from VJ-13 at Guadalcanal were detached on temporary duty with VJ-17 to assist with towing services, returning on 13th June. During April, VJ-17 and Marine unit VMTD-2 performed joint towing operations in the area. In May 1945, two JM-1 aircraft from VJ-17 were sent to VJ-13 detachment B for temporary duty. On 1st July 1945, VJ-18 relieved VJ-18 of its duties at Ulithi Atoll, and on 5th July the detachment (VJ-17A) was also relieved of its duties at Eniwetok Island by VJ-18, who had moved in from Faslop, Ulithi Atoll. VJ-17 detachment B (VJ-17B) moved over to replace VJ-18 at Faslop, Ulithi Atoll. On 8th September, VJ-17 was relieved of its duties at NAB Agana, Guam by utility squadron VJ-10, and on 9th September, VJ-10 also took over the duties from VJ-17B at Faslop, Ulithi Atoll. VJ-17 and its detachments started the move back to mainland USA during September 1945. In October 1945, VJ-17 moved to NAS Moffett Field, California, and relieved Utility Squadron VJ-1 of its duties at Moffett on 10th October 1945. The unit was formally decommissioned at NAS San Diego, California on 17th November 1945.

VJ-18
The unit was commissioned on 15th June 1944 at NAS Moffett Field, California. The unit was formed from a nucleus of VJ-9 personnel. The commanding officer was Lt. Frank Merril Graham, promoted to Lt. Commander on 17th November 1944. The unit trained with V-14, using their aircraft for pilot training. On 1st July 1944, VJ-18 relieved VJ-14 of its duties at NAS Moffett Field, took charge of all of VJ-14s aircraft and equipment, and became responsible for tow services in the San Francisco-Santa Barbara area. Also, on 1st July, VJ-18 detachment A (VJ-18A) was established at MCAS Santa Barbara, California, relieving VJ-14A of its duties at this location. On 1st October 1944 arriving unit VJ-1 relieved VJ-18 of all of its duties at NAS Moffett Field, and MCAS Santa Barbara, taking over all of VJ-18s aircraft and equipment. On 2nd November, VJ-18 received orders to move overseas to Faslop Field, Ulithi Atoll, Western Carolines. On 13th November, VJ-18 received the first of its compliment of nine JM-1 aircraft from the A&R department at NAS Moffett Field, and by 22nd November all nine aircraft had been received. The nine aircraft were flown to NAS Alemeda, California on 10th January 1945 in preparation for overseas shipment. Due to a lack of long range fuel tanks for the rear bomb bay, it was decided to ship the aircraft by sea to NAS Pearl Harbour, Hawaii. On 7th February, the nine aircraft were loaded aboard the USS Franklin and sailed for Pearl Harbour, arriving there on 14th February. At Pearl Harbour the aircraft were unloaded and prepared for flight with the assistance of VJ-7 and VJ-14 personnel. Once assembled, the aircraft were flight tested and flown to Hickham Field, Hawaii to take advantage of that fields longer runway. During the early hours of 17th February the aircraft departed Hickham Field for Ulithi Atoll, via Johnston Island, Majuro Atoll, Eniwetok, and Guam. One aircraft remained at Guam to act as a demonstrator for VJ-17 to show the bureau updates to be made to their aircraft. On 22nd February 1945 the other eight aircraft of VJ-18 arrived at Ulithi Atoll, with the remaining aircraft from Guam arriving to join the rest of VJ-18s aircraft at Ulithi on 1st March 1945. Five days after arriving at Ulithi, two of the units JM-1 aircraft moved to Peleliu in the Palau Island Group to provide utility services to the shore batteries and screening vessels. Regular pairs of aircraft were dispatched to Peleliu for weekly operations from this field. On 10th June 1945, two JM-1 aircraft were dispatched to Stickell Field, Eniwetok, Marshall Islands to assist VJ-17A. Two aircraft were dispatched to Iwo Jima and Guam during April, May, and June 1945 to service shore batteries and aircraft units in those locations. On 30th June the squadron and eight of its JM-1 aircraft moved to Stickell Field, Eniwetok, with the final JM-1 arriving from temporary duty at Guam on 14th July. VJ-18 relieved VJ-17 of all of its duties at Eniwetok on 1st July. During early October 1945, VJ-18 started the move back to NAS Moffett Field on USAs West coat. On 16th October, three JM-1s departed Eniwetok for Pearl Harbour to be delivered to the Pacific Utility Wing Service Pool, and on 8th October, the other six JM-1s were ferried to Guam and handed over to VJ-10. On 10th November 1945, VJ-18 was decommissioned at NAS Moffett Field, California.

Equipment fit
The aircraft were fitted out with Navy specific equipment, including VHF radio sets, radio altimeters, and Navy designed towing equipment. As the aircraft developed during its career with the Navy, the following equipment was gradually fitted to the aircraft as it became available:

AN/APX-2 IFF gear
AN/APR-2 homing receivers
AN/ARN-8 marker beacons
AN/APN-4 Loran equipment
AN/APN-1 altimeters.
Droppable bomb bay fuel tanks for extended towing missions.
AN/APS-3 radar equipment
Radio Countermeasures equipment
Oxygen equipment for high altitude towing operations


Twin Electric tow reel winching system fitted to a JM-1 of VJ-15

The Use
The primary function of the JM-1 and JM-2 was to provide aerial target towing missions for Navy ships, fighter units, and shore based naval installations.
Other missions included: Anti Aircraft towing (for ship and shore), Anti Aircraft tracking (for ship and shore), night tracking and Radar Counter Measures exercises, simulated attacks on submarines & destroyers, radar calibration flights, photographic and aerial mapping duties for the fleet, photographing landing operations, mail runs, night flare rehearsals, transportation and ferrying duties, fighter directive practice, air sea rescue searches, anti-submarine patrols, administration flights, and rehearsals for air support strikes by landing forces.


JM-1, Bu No 66609 of VJ-7 flying overhead an Iowa class battleship

Marine Corps Units
Four Marine Units also operated the JM-1/JM-2, these were:

VMJ-1
The unit was commissioned at Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii on 21st March 1945 as Marine Towing Detachment-1 (VMTD-1). Was re-designated VMJ-1 on 1st May 1945 and assigned to the 3rd Marine Air Wing for towing targets for Marine AA batteries over the Hawaiian Islands. The squadron was deactivated in October 1945 at Kauai.

VMJ-2
The unit was commissioned at MCAS Ewa, Hawaii on 10th October 1944 as VMTD-2 to train in towing Aerial targets for Marine AA batteries. After two months at Maui in Hawaii towing targets for the 5th Marine Division, the unit and its six JM-1 aircraft moved to Agana, Guam on 24th November 1944. Here the unit carried out tow target flights and radar tracking duties for Army AA units on Guam, Saipan, and Tinian. Was re-designated VMJ-2 on 1st May 1945. After the war the squadron moved back to the West Coast of the USA, and was deactivated on 6th March 1946.

VMJ-3
The unit was formed at MCAS, Ewa, Hawaii on 1st October 1944 as VMTD-3, performing tow target and tracking duties for Marine AA batteries. The unit was re-designated VMJ-3 on 1st May 1945 at Ewa. The unit was sent to Midway Island in August 1945 to tow targets for Marine defence battalions. At the end of the war the unit was sent back to MCAS Ewa, Hawaii and was deactivated in October 1945.

AES-46
Aircraft Engineering Squadron 46 was commissioned in January 1943 at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina, and quickly became the largest aviation squadron in the Marine Corps. It was responsible for airfield support operations, services for visiting aircraft, station communications, air traffic control, VIP ferrying duties on the east coast of the USA, and aircraft servicing and modifications. The unit was also used to ferry Marine aircraft from the factories to Marine bases on the East coast. The unit had between 12 and 14 different JM-1 aircraft on strength.


JM-1, Bu No 66749 of AES-46

 

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